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Along with creation of the Boeing 757 plane, the aircraft manufacturing corporation “The Boeing Company” made the decision on creation of the model noted as Boeing767. These two models were developed in parallel with each other and therefore in general they are technologically identical. Essential difference is the internal design and configuration of interior. Boeing 767 in difference from 757 is the widebody liner having two passes between seats. Boeing 767 became a popular dukhdvigatelny airliner for flights through the Atlantic Ocean. The Boeing 767 as well as the Boeing 757 meet the international standards of civil aviation of ETOPS (Extended Range Twin-engine Operation Performance Standards).
Initially offered airlines the first version 767-100, but this version didn’t attract great interest because of drop of passenger capacity and which had big similarities to model 757.
The fact that the Boeing 767 is capable to achieve commercial success among airlines was proved by the Boeing 767-200 version which differed from the previous model in the increased interior. Length of the plane was 48,51 meters. Production of this version began in July, 1978, in and September, 1981 the plane rose into the sky. And in a year the first Boeing 767-200 planes arrived to the American air carrier “United Airlines” which ordered at the beginning of thirty cars.
Later the Boeing company developed the version noted as Boeing 767-200ER. This version received the auxiliary fuel tanks that allowed this liner to make longer non-stop flights. The release last officially 767-200 and 767-200ER took place in 1994. But in 1998 production of version 767-200ER continued after the order from Continental Airlines airline arrived
The initial concept 7X7 meant creation of the high-capacity short-range plane with a possibility of take off and landing on short runways. However, such option didn’t interest airlines. Then, Boeing reoriented the project on creation of the transcontinental liner. During this period, several configurations of the plane were offered: with two engines, with three engines and T-shaped plumage of Kiel.
Finally, the two-engine option similar to Airbus A300 became a basic configuration. Such choice was connected with economic reasons, and also with technical progress of jet engines of new generation.
Boeing expected that 7X7 the segment of the market of long-haul planes of average capacity will borrow. In other words, the liner has to transport a large number of passengers between the large cities.
By the end of the 1970th, aerospace technologies evolved dramatically forward and the new plane received the most advanced of them. Except above-mentioned engines of new generation, the liner received more effective aerodynamic decisions, a part of the fuselage was made of composite materials. All this allowed to facilitate liner weight, to cut fuel consumption and to take aboard as much as possible passengers.
The same technologies were applied to the project 7N7 which turned into one of the most successful planes subsequently – Boeing 757. Cabins of both liners were unified that allowed to train crew in steering of two types at once, and it in turn cut expenses of airlines on retraining of crews.
Similarity of cabins 767 and 757 was that for the first time in the history, a part of analog electromechanical needle indicators were replaced with displays on electron beam tubes. The crew was reduced to 2kh the person, and the Control system of Polet (FMS) which, in addition, had a weight more of opportunities perfectly coped with functions of the navigator. Since then, cabins with similar equipment are called “glass” or “glass cockpit”.
Beginning of production Boeing 767
In January, 1978, Boeing declared expansion of the plant in the city of Everett which was built in the late sixties especially for production 747. It was supposed that the new plane which received by then designation 767 will be made there.
The Boeing planned to exhaust three versions: 767-100 (capacity of 190 passengers), 767-200 (capacity of 210 passengers) and three-engine 767 MR/LR (capacity of 200 passengers). Subsequently 767 MR/LR it was renamed in 777, I became the two-engine liner, and its capacity was increased to 440 passengers.
Production of the first 767 began on July 14, 1978 after the United Airlines airline ordered 30 planes 767-200. After a while the order for 50 planes 767-200 from American Airlines and Delta Airlines arrived.
As for version 767-100, it it was not it is interesting to airlines as its characteristics were crossed with Boeing 757.
The most important — operational costs
By the end of the 1970th, the minimum operational costs became the main criterion upon purchase of planes by airlines. The Boeing company expected it therefore the toplivoeffektivnost was put in 767 even in the course of design. In comparison with predecessors the plane turned out 20-30% more economic. Engineers could achieve such results due to new technologies in design of a side panel, and also new engines. At the same time, technical progress allowed to design one third of drawings 767 by means of computers, and in a wind tunnel the test model of the liner spent about 26 000 hours.
The Boeing at the same time designed two planes 767 and 757. Finally, both liners received similar design decisions, in particular: avionics, control systems of flight and various units. In general the Boeing company spent about $3,5 for development of both planes — $4 billions.
Design features of Boeing 767
As it was already mentioned above, for speedup of preparation of drawings of the most part of a design 767, the automated design allowing to reach high precision which is very important when the big percent of design works is carried out by other companies was used. In total 28 companies exhaust knots and units which cost makes 45 percent from the total cost of the plane. The design of a side panel is characterized by increased: sweep, scope and chord. Thanks to these features, the area of a side panel can be 53% more.
Boeing 767 is equipped with two turbofan engines suspended on poles to a side panel. To especially be necessary to note that on the presentation 767, for the first time in the history the Boeing offered buyers of the plane for the choice two versions of engines – Pratt & Whitney of JT9D and General Electric CF6. Both models had the maximum pull-rod in 210 kH (21,772 kg).
Width of the fuselage is “golden mean” between the sizes of models 707 and 747, it makes – 5,03 m. Thus, the maximum quantity of the chairs which are located in a row with two passes = 7 (a configuration 2+3+2).
For the first time in the history of aircraft industry, the plane was equipped with “a glass cabin” which equipment undertook control of airplane during flight. The commander and the second pilot only control work of all systems. Such innovation allowed airlines to cut down expenses on crew and to refuse services of the flight engineer. However, the United Airlines airline, showed the concern connected with risks of input of the first 767 and originally demanded presence of the flight engineer onboard. Finally, in July, 1981, supervisory authorities of the USA confirmed that at the current hardware, steering of the widebody plane of crew from 2 people absolutely safely. Nevertheless, the cabin calculated on crew from three people some time remained an option, but as a result was established only on the first copies of Boeing 767.
First flight and tests
The prototype of the plane with serial number of N767BA equipped with turbovintelyatorny JT9D Pratt & Whitney engines was rolled out from a hangar on August 4, 1981. By that moment, 173 solid orders from 17 airlines among which aboard the plane arrived: Air Canada, All Nippon Airways, Britannia Airways, Transbrazil and Trans World Airlines.
On September 26, 1981, Boeing 767 made the first flight under control of pilots of testers Tommy Edmonds, Lew Wallick and John Brit. The first flight took place without complications, except for the problem with the chassis which arose because of the flowed-out hydraulic liquid.
Test flights and tests of the Boeing 767 continued within 10 months. Especially for it 6 copies were constructed. The first four planes were equipped with JT9D engines, and the remained two CF6. Five planes were used for testing aviaonik and control systems of flight, and on the sixth physical capacities of the liner were tested. During testing pilots described 767 as “easy in steering, but with nuances in maneuverability, peculiar to big widebody planes”.
In July, 1982, after 1600 hours of flight tests, 767-200 with JT9D engines it was certified by the Federal Aviation Administration of the USA (FAA), and also Department of Civil Aviation of Great Britain (CAA).
On August 19, 1982, the United Airlines airline became the first operator of Boeing 767-200.
In September, 1982, it was certified 767-200 with CF6 engines. Its deliveries to Delta Airlines began in October, 1982.
Input of the Boeing 767 planes in a system of airlines went practically without problems. In the first year of operation of 96,1% of liners took off and sat down without delays connected with technical problems. Airlines were satisfied both with economic characteristics of the liner and its internal comfort. As for “children’s diseases” 767, completion was undergone: some sensors, lock of an evacuation ladder and stabilizer.
With the purpose to expand opportunities 767 and to offer airlines a suitable configuration, the Boeing company offers model 767-200ER (Extended Range) with the increased flying range. The first order for this plane was placed by Ethiopian Airlines airline in December, 1982.
In comparison with 767-200, version 767-200ER is equipped with the auxiliary fuel tanks at the expense of what flying range was increased from 7,300 km to 11,825 km. The plane was put into commercial operation on March 27, 1984.
In the mid-eighties, Boeing 767 became one of the most regularly flying planes on the international tracks of northern Atlantic. There was it thanks to the changes in safety regulations of flights regulating removal from spare airfields (ETOPS). According to old rules of ETOPS, the route of the two-engined plane has to be constructed so that it constantly was in limits no more than 90 minutes of flight to the nearest airfield where it would be possible to crash-land in case of refusal one of engines.
In new rules of ETOPS, removal time from spare airfield was increased up to 120 minutes provided that the airline has good technical reputation.
Changes in rules of ETOPS managed to be reached due to the increased reliability which was shown by two-engine planes and engines of new generation. Further removal time from airfield was increased up to 180 minutes.
Thanks to amendments to rules of ETOPS, sale of Boeing 767 increased, and the plane began to be operated actively on transatlantic routes between the large cities.
After a successful debut 767-200, airlines showed interest in version of the plane with the increased capacity of passengers. In 1983, Boeing offered two extended versions 767-300 and 767-300ER. The producer declared that both planes will be able to accomodate 20% more passengers. The Japan Airlines airline became the first customer 767-300. The first flight 767-300 made on January 30, 1986. Commercial operation of the plane began on October 20, 1986.
As for version 767-300ER, the first test flight of the plane took place on December 9, 1986. The American Airlines airline became the first customer of the liner. Commercial operation 767-300ER began on March 3, 1988.
Experiments and further evolution
After an exit to commercial lines 767-300, the Boeing company developed the pilot project of the double-deck liner 767-200DD which secretly nicknamed “Humpback Mukilteo” (“Hunchback of Mukilteo”). That it was clear, Mukilteo is a small town close to the city of Everett where there is one of the large plants Boeing. The lower deck of the liner is taken from 767-300, and top from model 757. The project didn’t attract any interest of airlines.
In 1986 Boeing announced the project of new version of 767-X with the expanded fuselage and the extended side panel. However and this project didn’t attract interest of airlines. By 1988, became 767-X separate development and further I turned into Boeing 777. For now, model 767-300 remained second-large (after 747) in the Boeing catalog.
Thanks to a favorable economic situation in the world and to new amendments to the rules ETOPS, by the beginning of the 1990th sales of Boeing 767 grew. 1989 during which 132 solid orders for the Boeing 767 were received became the most successful. In too time, 767 becomes the most sold widebody plane in the Boeing catalog. Model 767 becomes the most widespread on a piece between North America and Europe. If to take statistics, then it turns out that by the beginning of the 2000th, Boeing 767 crossed the Atlantic Ocean more often than all planes combined for all history of aviation. Undoubtedly and the fact that the plane exerted considerable impact on development of aviation branch in general as now it was possible to connect by direct flights the minor airports on the charter directions.
In February, 1990, the British Airways airline received the first 767-300 Rolls-Royce RB211 equipped with engines of new generation. However, it wasn’t without minor problems. Six months of operation later, the air carrier was forced to suspend flights of all fleet 767-300 as on one of liners cracks in poles were found (by means of which unit the engine fastens to a side panel). It turned out that cracks appeared from behind the big weight of RB211 engines (heavier than other engines 767 almost on 1,000 kg). In 1991 Boeing made changes to a design of poles, and the park 767 British Airways was repaired taking into account recommendations of the producer.
In January, 1993, the UPS Airlines transport company ordered development of cargo version 767-300F. Commercial operation of the plane began on October 16, 1995. In difference from usual 767-300, the model differed in the strengthened fuselage design, a new side panel and stronger chassis.
In November, 1993, the government of Japan placed the order for military version of Boeing E-767 (the plane of distant radar detection). The model is based on 767-200ER. Deliveries of two E-767 took place in 1998.
In the 1990th, the main competitor of model 767 was Airbus A330-200 surpassing the Boeing plane in the capacity, flying range and profitability. Moreover, the Boeing company paid attention that the long-haul fleet of large air carrier Delta Airlines consisting of the park of outdated Lockheed L-1011 needs replacement. Both factors moved Boeing on creation of more modern and advanced model 767-400ER which, according to promises of the producer, had to become 12% more effective.
In October, 1997, the Continental Airlines airline showed interest to 767-400ER for the purpose of replacement of the park of outdated McDonnell Douglas DC-10.
The first flight 767-400ER made on October 9, 1999, and was put into operation in Continental Airlines on September 14, 2000.
By the beginning of the 2000th years, about 900 Boeing 767 planes were sold. However, after 2001 in the industry of air transportation crisis began, and demand for the plane fell. At the same time the Boeing company refused the plan of development of the next advanced model 767-400ERX in favor of the new project “Sonic Cruiser”. This development meant the toplivoeffektivny plane which for 15% quicker 767. Airlines were skeptical about the idea of cutting-down of operational costs due to increase in speed of the liner then the Sonic Cruiser project was winded down.
In 2003, Boeing announced the beginning of design of the successor for 767 code-named 7E7. According to promises of the producer, the new liner will consist for 50% from composite materials that will allow to reduce fuel consumption by 20% in comparison with 767. The name 787 Dreamliner was appropriated to the plane and within two years on it the record number of orders arrived.
However, the increased demand for Dreamliner provoked problems. The matter is that 767 it was operated 20 years and airlines sought to update the park, otherwise their Boeings 767 were expected by difficult and expensive technical check (D-check). Plus to everything, the program of realization 787 lagged behind for three years. It was initially planned that 787 will begin to fly in 2008, but its commercial operation began only in 2011.
While the producer and customers reached compromise on a drimlayner, cargo airlines UPS and DHL Aviation showed interest in the combined cargo versions 767. Despite it if to take statistics, then demand for Boeing 767 was reduced about 24 (2008) to 3 liners (2010).
In 2010, the option – wing-end of a side panel (vingleta) which allow to reduce fuel consumption by 6,5% due to improvement of aerodynamic qualities of the plane was offered operators of Boeing 767.
On February 2, 2011, from a hangar of the Boeing plant rolled out the thousand copy of model 767 intended for the Japanese airline All Nippon Airways. If to be more precisely, then it was 91 on the account the plane of version 767-300ER. And from the point of view of the history Boeing — the second widebody liner (after 747) over whose sales stepped for 1000 copies. Also, the thousand plane became the last 767 gathering in the native assembly shop. Production of 1001 liners was transferred to other area of the huge industrial city of Everett to the new konveerny line which is intended especially for production 787 and allows to increase production efficiency for 20%.
After opening of a new assembly line, Boeing received about 50 orders on 767. Production of planes will last till 2013. Managers of Boeing don’t exclude that demand for the plane will proceed.
Versions of Boeing 767
Today there are three models of the passenger Boeing 767, each of them has versions which differ in the capacity and flying range.
Model 767-200 – is basic version of the Boeing 767. Commercial operation of the liner began in United Airlines airline in 1982. Originally the plane was used for transportation of a large number of passengers between the large cities of the USA (for example, from Los Angeles to Washington). In total in this version 128 planes were made. The main competitors of the liner — Airbus A300 and A310.
Production 767-200 was stopped in the late eighties, in connection with emergence of more advanced version 767-200ER. In 1998, the Boeing company began transformation old 767-200 in cargo version of 767-200SF (Special Freighter) which is positioned as replacement to old Douglas DC-8.
Version 767-200ER – is the upgraded version 767-200. Commercial operation of the plane began in El Al Israel Airlines airline in 1984. In difference from basic model the auxiliary fuel tank was aboard the plane installed. Also, the liner received more powerful Pratt & Whitney PW4000 and General Electric CF6 engines (at choice of the customer). Feature 767-200ER was that it became the first two-engine plane which is capable to overcome transatlantic distance (for example, from New York to Beijing).
Today the plane is still active on the international air routes. As of July, 2012 to be in operation 121 liners 767-200ER, from them about 59 were transformed to cargo. The main competitor 767-200ER is Airbus A300-600R and A310-300.
Version 767-200ER has no direct competitors. Boeing 767-200 has 181 places in three classes or 224 places in two-class design. In the main Boeing 767-200 it is used on such routes as New York – Los Angeles.
In February, 1982 the company declared development of the new version which received designation 767-300. This model about 6,42 meters is longer, than 767-200. The first flight took place in January, 1986, and in September of the same year, the airliner began commercial operation at air carrier of “Japan Airlines” (JAL). And version 767-300ER delivered in March, 1988 to the American Airlines company is as well as 767-200ER expanded version with a large supply of fuel. The Boeing 767-300ER was the most popular with airlines, and is generally used on long-haul flights and in less brisk routes.
Model 767-300 – is the stretched and more capacious Boeing 767 version. The fuselage was extended on 6,43 meters and its total length makes 54,9 meters. Originally the majority of systems of the plane remained the same as at 767-200, however after a while for the plane more powerful Rolls-Royce RB211 engines were offered. The plane is operated generally on routes with a big passenger capacity, type of Asia and Europe. In total 104 Boeings 767-300 were made. As of July, 2012, in operation there are 81 planes. The main competitor of the Boeing 767-300 is Airbus A300.
Since 2008 orders for re-equipment of passenger planes 767-300 in cargo 767-300BCF began to arrive. The All Nippon Airways airline became the first customer.
From version 767-300 there is also a cargo model having designation 767-300F. The first order for this Boeing was from the United Parcel company in 1993.
Version 767-300ER – is version 767-300 with the increased flying range and the increased take-off weight. The plane is equipped with Pratt & Whitney PW400, General Electric CF6 or Rolls-Royce RB211 engines (at choice). The liner is actively operated on transcontinental flights (for example Los Angeles – Frankfurt). In general, the version was the most demanded, than all other versions of Boeing 767 combined. As of 2012 in operation there are 527 planes 767-300ER. The main competitor of the liner is Airbus A330-200.
On the basis of 767-300ER the cargo version of the plane by the 767-300F, first customer of which was created there was an UPS Airlines airline in 1995. Boeing 767-300F is capable to contain in itself to 24 standard pans (2200 by 3200 mm) on the main deck and to 30 LD2 containers on the lower deck. As of 2012, in operation there are about 71 planes of version 767-300F. Orders for this version continue to arrive.
Model 767-400ER – is the last the upgraded version of the Boeing 767 today. In comparison with 767-300ER fuselage 767-400ER its total length of 61,4 meters is longer on 6,5 meters, and. The liner can take aboard up to 375 passengers (in one-cool configuration). Wingspan was increased by 4,36 meters, zakontsovka of a side panel (vingleta) were also added. The cabin of pilots was equipped in the spirit of Boeing 777. Maximum flying range of 10418 km. A typical route for 767-400ER – London-Tokyo. In total in version 767-400ER 37 planes were made. The main competitor of the liner is A330-200.
The last version of the 767th liner has the designation Boeing 767-400EF. Development of this version began in 1996 to order from the Delta Air Lines and Continental Airlines companies. In comparison with the previous version 767-400ER it was extended on 6,4 meters. Versions underwent also plane side panels — they became longer and side panel zakontsovka changed. A meter panel, brakes and wheels are similar to the Boeing 777 model.
Boeing 767 prices:
Boeing 767 200 for sale – 160 000000 dollars US;
Boeing 767 300 for sale – 182 000000 dollars US;
Boeing 767 400 for sale – 200 000000 dollars US;
Boeing 767 F for sale – 185 000000 dollars US;
Find more Boeing for sale
Length: 61,37 m (54,94m.)
Height: 16,87 m (15,85m.)
Wingspan: 51,92 m (47,57m.)
Weight of empty: 103,1 tons (90 tons)
Cruiser speed: 850 km/h.
Flying range: 10420 km. (11060 km.)
Ceiling: 11885 m.
Number of passenger seats: 240-375 places (218-350 places)
Crew: 2 persons
767-400ER / 767-300ER
Russia, St-Petersburg, Efimova 3.
USA, 315 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10017.