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Russia, St-Petersburg, Efimova 3.
US, New York, Plattsburgh.
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In 1903 in the USA there was an important event for history of world aircraft: on Kitty-Hok’s beach in Northern Carolina the airplane of brothers Wright has made the flight first in the history. At the same time in New Haven, the State of Connecticut, 22-year-old William the Boeing, future founder of Boeing corporation, has left walls of Yale university and has decided to be engaged in business.
From university William the Boeing has gone “to a thicket”. At the beginning of the XX century timber trade was the second for profitability after gold mining by business in the USA. Timber trade has allowed William Boingu to scare together quickly a decent fortune, and in 1909 he was already one of the most dear citizens of Seattle. At the end of the 1909th in Seattle there has taken place the trade exhibition of Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Ocean during which inhabitants of the western coast have for the first time seen the flying car — the small airship. Then William the Boeing has understood that his heart belongs to aircraft.
When several months later in the neighboring town of Georgetown demonstrative flights on the new airplane Curtiss Reims Racer of the famous pioneer of the American aircraft Charles Hamilton have taken place, the Boeing specially went to look at its performances. Hamilton’s flights have ended with accident — on March 13, 1910 Hamilton’s airplane has failed in a pond. The pilot has not died only by miracle. What was seen has not cooled William’s heat of the Boeing, and the next several years it has spent for persuading someone from pilots to take it in flight.
The dream remained unrealized up to 1915 when the destiny has reduced the Boeing with soulmates — enthusiasts of air flights by the lieutenant of fleet Conrad Uestervelt and the pilot Tira Maroni. On the two-seat airplane of Maroni Boeing itself for the first time I have risen in air, and having landed I knew already well that it needs the airplane.
The Boeing has gone to Los Angeles to study piloting of airplanes at Glenn Martin — the unsurpassed authority of those years. From Los Angeles it has returned on own hydroplane.
On the bank of the lake Union Boeing I have reconstructed an old boat hangar for airplanes and I have organized Pacific Aero Club which gave the chance to everyone for small money to make walk on the airplane.
The design of a hydroplane of Martin did not suit the Boeing, and William has decided to create own airplane.
Together with Uestervelt they have found the engineer self-educated person Herb Manter experimenting with airplanes in the shed near Seattle on an island Dyuemish. He has helped to develop a design of the new hydroplane (called by B&W on the first letters of surnames of customers) and has constructed the two first the airplane.
On July 15, 1916 William the Boeing has for the first time risen in air by the airplane, and an only month later has registered Pacific Aero Products Co corporation. (further the enterprise was renamed into Boeing Airplane), which had to build hydroplanes for navy of the USA. “I have invested nearly $100000 in this Boeing company — money huge for those times”.
Thanks to strategy of diversification of production Boeing Airplane have mastered the market of post transportations. And in 1927, having won the contract of Federal post department of the USA (the victory was won by model 40-A airplane), “Boeing” became the first-ever aviamail carrier. For implementation of the project of post and other transportations the head of the company has created the first service division — Boeing Air Transport. Also the first air-transport route San Francisco — Chicago has begun to function. But also it to the innovator there was insufficiently. In 1929 in the sky the new three-motor airplane of model 80As has risen by 12 passengers. Aboard the plane stewardesses have for the first time risen.
In 1930 William the Boeing has presented the passenger-and-freight Monomail car on court of the public (streamlining of forms it is reminded by modern “Boeings”). Soon Boeing Airplane Company has turned into Boeing Airplane & Transport Corporation. There were also new divisions: Boeing School of Aeronautics in Oakland, Boeing Aircraft of Canada, etc. The company assembled airplanes, built airfields, released engines and propellers, trained pilots and aeromechanics, rendered air-transport services.
And on February 1, 1929 the real colossus — United Aircraft & Transportation Corporation was born. The corporation of the Boeing became the powerful aircraft manufacturing and transport empire, and her head — one of the richest and successful businessmen of America.
Not to allow autocracy in the air-transport sphere, the parliament of the USA has adopted the law which has destroyed the empire of the Boeing in 1934. The new document prohibited aircraft manufacturing firms to be at the same time owners and the transport and post companies. The huge holding has broken up on:
William the Boeing long time could not recover from blow: everything that was created with such work, has been destroyed with the stroke of the pen. Broken and tired, the magnate has retired, having decided to observe aviation a child from outside. Have been handed over the reins to friends and colleagues — to Philipp Johnson and Clermont Egtvedta. However life of the investor did not answer uneasy nature of the Boeing. At the age of 53 years it has opened new business. Thoroughbred breeding horses became his new passion.
After 1934 the Boeing company has directed all the efforts to development of new models of airplanes. In the 1935th the Kaydet fighter which has become the main training aircraft of aircraft of the USA was born. These cars more than 10000 pieces have been constructed. In 1936 Boeing has signed the contract with PanAmerican airline and for many years became her main partner. In the 1938th the passenger model 307 Stratoliner which has become an airplane sample for passenger lines the next 10 years was issued.
In the same time the V-17 and V-29 bombers, and also the sea XPBB-1 Sea Ranger bomber have been developed.
During World War II the Boeing company became the largest producer military aeromechanics in the world. Not only V-17 and V-29, but also the airplanes developed by competitors — attack planes of Douglas DC-7B gathered on its capacities. The air fleet of allies which has brought down at the end of war thousands of tons of bombs to Germany has been almost completely built at Boeing plants. The bomber which has dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima is a child of Boeing too.
1944 has become history of the company under the name “Fight at Kansas”. This year at assembly plant in Uichita all imaginable records of productivity have been broken. Working in emergency mode, the plant released up to 16 airplanes a day — a record which is not broken still.
After war orders have run low, for Boeing hard times have again begun. In 1946 the companies 70000 people were necessary to dismiss. William Allen who has held the CEO’s post had to look for ways of recovery from the crisis urgently. The company has begun work on new passenger airplanes, has presented to the U.S. Government of model of new bombers and for the first time was engaged in production of ballistic missiles and interceptor missiles of the class “the earth — air”. Under the leadership of Allen the company has begun to release the legendary “the flying fortresses” V-52, air refuelers KS-135 and the first American reactive passenger airplanes of model 707.
In 1958 three airplanes of model 707-120 have got military and air forces of the USA for the president of the country and his immediate environment. Signal Air Force One have been appropriated to this escort. Since then in the majority of the countries of the world the airplane of the president of the country is called “board number one”.
In 1960 the Boeing corporation has begun to develop the space direction. There were first projects of the manned Dyna-Soar space station and the carrier rocket Saturn V intended for the Apollo program. In 1963 NASA has chosen Boeing for the organization of flight into a lunar orbit and photography of a lunar surface at a short distance. This project has been realized in 1966, and in the 1969th the Apollo 11 spaceship put to orbit by means of the Saturn carrier brought astronauts to the Moon.
At the beginning 60kh several major airlines have addressed Boeing with the offer to develop mass model of the reactive airplane capable to use the runway of the small airports, to perform flight even at failure of one engine, to be more economic, than B-707, easy-to-work and service.
Thus, Boeing 727 — the narrow-body medium-range passenger aircraft has been created. He has made the first flight on February 9, 1963.
In 1967 the liner 737 which was fated to become one of the most sold airplanes in the history of aircraft has gone to the first flight. Total number of the sold cars has exceeded 2000 pieces.
In 1968 Boeing has developed the biggest, at that time, passenger liner 747. The first-ever double-deck giant which the company has good-natured nicknamed the Jumbo Jett (Jumbo Jet).
Thanks to 737 and 747, Boeing has fixed the leadership in the market of aviaproducers and has literally inverted the industry of air transportation.
At the beginning 80kh two new Boeing models — 757 and 767 are born. Uzkofezyulyazhny 757 has been created as replacement growing old 727. As for Boeing 767, it has been developed for airlines of average and distant extent. Besides this airplane became the strong contender to Airbus A300 gaining popularity in Europe.
Practically to the middle 90kh Boeing improved the model range until a situation in the market, and also the competition to Airbus, McDonnell Douglas and Lockheed has forced the company to start development of the long range widebody airliner on 400-500 places.
So, in 1994 Boeing 777 was born. For the first time airlines and passengers have taken active part in development of this car. Their opinion had the highest priority, and the car which as a result has turned out, by recognition of the Boeing, became the most consumer oriented car in the world.
By the end of the 1990th it became obvious that the Boeing 767 is considerably obsolete, and cannot compete with new developments of the rival of Airbus, such as Airbus A330. In 2001 the Boeing declared the beginning of development of the new project, Boeing Sonic Cruiser. The company promised that the new airplane will be able to fly with a speed close to sound, at the same time on average spending no more fuel (at the expense of the shortened flight time), than the 767th or A330. Because of terrorist attacks on September 11 and the increasing oil prices it became clear that airlines are more interested in profitability of flights, than in speed, and the Sonic Cruiser project, besides expensive and technologically difficult, has been suspended.
Nevertheless, on January 28, 2005 Boeing has submitted to the world the new project — 787 Dreamliner. The airplane has replaced the concept of Sonic Cruiser, having inherited many ideas and technologies of the predecessor.
Boeing 787 is the widebody liner designed for transportation from 296 to 350 passengers on distance to 15 700 km. 787 I became the first passenger airplane which fuselage is completely made of composite materials. For the first time it has risen in air on December 15, 2009.
Today in the world in operation there are about 12000 reactive Boeing liners that makes about 75% of world park.
The Boeing Company is one of the largest world manufacturers. The American company, apart from the construction of commercial planes, develops and manufactures satellites, communications systems, missiles and various weapons, launch complexes.
Now Boeing is headquartered in Chicago, but the company has representation not only in the United States, but also in 70 other countries around the world. Boeing is the employer for 170 thousand employees, with 140 thousand of them have diplomas of higher education.
Now Boeing is a leader in the aviation industry and may employ thousands of staff, although still a little less than a century ago, the company founded by Ul’jamom Boeing, former student at Yale University, skolotivshim his fortune selling Woods, was more than a modest enterprise.
The first company of the young enthusiast named “Pacific aviaklubom” (i.e. the company as such was not) and was located in a converted boat hangar.
First aircraft there not built and earned that leased airplane. The design of this machine is not very happy with Boeing, so he decided, together with assistants develop their design water aircraft. Creating two new aircraft, Boeing in 1916 year immediately registered the first company, which was supposed to supply water planes for the army States. In its organization the owner invested a whopping at the time money is 100 thousand dollars.
10 years later Boeing started postal air freight and built the world’s first mail plane, and in 1930 year Boeing presented its first utility transport aircraft.
Over time, the company has replenished with new units, and during the second world war it became the world leader in the production of military aircraft. In the 50-IES of the maiden flight of the Boeing 367-80 committed is the progenitor of all future “semisotyh”. In the 60-ies, during the height of the “space race”, the company began to develop outer activity.
Hard times for Boeing is not an empty phrase. Periodically the company experienced considerable difficulties.
Many problems for her growing popularity of established European Airbusthat made successful models of public A320 A330 and A340.
Despite fierce competition, which, it should be noted, does not weaken today, Boeing continues to occupy a leading position in aviaprome. Annually the company delivers at least 3 hundreds of planes, and the number of orders with each year becomes more and more.
On passenger planes Boeing
The first model, the Boeing 377 Stratocruiser, began to operate in distant 49 year. This plane could accommodate only 100 people, while the maximum range on it stood at 6700 kilometers.
After the release of this aircraft started development of the “semisotyh” of Boeings. Today, the company has developed and released a series of 9 such aircraft. The first “semisotyj”, a Boeing 707, took off into the sky in a 54 year.
Famous 747-ND made its first flight in 69-m. At that time, the aircraft became the real breakthroughs in the field of passenger transport. He surpassed all other aircraft its size, weight and capacity of passengers. Total 7 747 modifications have been created.
In 2009, the company introduced its new Boeing passenger aircraft model Boeing 787 Dreamliner. The twin-engine plane can carry up to 330 passengers. It is noteworthy that its body is completely made of composite materials. Maximum flight range of liner is 16 thousand kilometers.
The Boeing Company has proved to the world that its popularity is based on a real basis.
Highest selling planes, innovative technologies, expanding the staff to increase annual profits-all this suggests that the company continues to grow, despite the competition and economic crises.
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