It became in the late nineties clear that Seven hundred Sixty Seventh (Boeing 767) has become hopelessly outdated, and attacks on September 11th and the subsequent increase in prices for fuel has urged on the Boeing to make the decision on closing of works on the Glacier project (the concept of the supersonic Sonic Cruiser liner) and to pass to development of cheaper and economic project 7E7 with result of which there was Boeing 787 Dreamliner or as developers – “Seven–Eight” speak.
In the Semdesyat-Vosmogo project, the Boeing tests in a little new role of the designer-collector, pulling together various parts of the plane from around the world to the assembly line in the town of Everett, State of Washington. Outsourcing in aircraft industry business dreary, but not new as it helps to sell the plane to those countries where it has been partially made though the Boeing has this time surpassed all, having ordered such parts as a half of wings and average section of a fyyuzyulyazh to Japanese and Italians.
In general, involvement of Japanese in the project is extensive and includes Mitsubishi, Kawasaki, FHI and bankutsya densely by the government of Japan as the Japanese Aeroflot under the name JAL is in dry in a financial bum and the new economic plane in replacements of a mastodon 747 on local routes is extremely necessary for them. It is no wonder what on this background of ANA(All Nippon Airways) is the first recipient of the plane.
One of the biggest innovations in Drimlaynere this use of composites in the most part of all plane though at the moment the Boeing admits that the first twenty planes leave with overweight in 2 tons that has forced the Delta and Shanghai Airlines to transfer the orders for an indefinite term. The biggest innovation it at the same time and the biggest hemorrhoids practically for all as at the moment, the plastic fuselage is almost not studied subject in civil aircraft industry with a heap of potential problems: Delamination at the hidden damages, an inflammability with allocation of a toxic smoke, toko-not conductivity and common fault of historical experience with such materials have generated a great number of opponents of design of the plane.
It is clear that Composites Innovation have counted all loadings on hundred times, but nobody definitely knows that the take-off / landing will be concrete after 30 thousand cycles, and many doubt that the flowing three-year Fatigue Testing the program will give on it the answer, and computer modeling is all the same plus or minus the bus-stop. So for example one of the leading design engineers of the Vincent Weldon Boeing has written to FAA the exposing letter that the program of testing, to put it mildly, doesn’t correspond to quantity of innovations.
Many say that delivery to the Crashworthiness Certificate Boeing from FAA is already obvious deflection of the last, in view of that number of tests which the 787th had to pass for so many radical innovations and as it is clear that the tail drives a dog for a long time, all rather quietly expect acceptance of inspectors of FAA in the Boeing upon termination of the program of the 787th.
The test of a wing for durability that is characteristic, this time the Boeing hasn’t seen the test to a break (as in case of Boeing 777) and was just limited to 150% an aberration.
As one of the purposes the Boeing has put simplicity and speed of service of the plane that airlines have dismissed more than these already too choosy mechanics. So for example there was opportunity replacement like the engine with GE on Rolls–Royce without redoing of a half of the plane that has become possible partly thanks to refusal of system of compressed air from engines (Bleed Air), so now for the place of engines pressure in a cabin will be forced by four electroturbines (CAC–Cabin Air Compressor) from Hamilton Sunstrand which enter the general life support system (ECS–Environment Control System) which is able to heat or cool the settlement of houses so so on 20-30, generally the conditioner is promised be hurt.
And the biggest advantage it is possible to call that pressure on the plane will be supported above than at other planes, and at last aboard will put a humidifier, that is the severe hangover has to be transferred even easier * now. (* – in comparison with planes of the same type, depends on quantity and quality of the drunk alcohol).
Still it is possible to carry system of generation of nitrogen which is pumped in fuel tanks in process of a devastation of it to reduce chance of explosion from the category of a statics to tricks of the 787th. The problem of grounding and dispersion of a statics is solved by iron sticks under the main covering and a copper grid in wings, only in test flights there were three Lightning Strike’a so it is possible to tell that the system works.
Transition to power supply for many systems is almost business card of the 787th, Boingovtsa directly call the Electric airplane plane, for example, for compensation of lack of Bleed Air the central hydraulic system consists now only of two electric pumps so without lipizdrichestvo, you can tell your Primary to flaps – and – y and as Alternate Flaps are powered from electricity too, it doesn’t instill confidence. Also, chassis brakes are completely electrodriving too now that earlier at all nobody ever did. All this adds complexity to system management of power supply, so for example Load Shedding (decrease in electroloading) at loss of two electric generators imposes restriction for use of CAC, and simply speaking, the plane won’t have power supply for all four compressors for maintenance of pressure in salon and restriction for Climb Speed is as a result imposed.
As electrician I came to qualitatively new level, the situation with avionics is even more cheerful. The avionics in general is constructed on the tire AFDX the cornerstone of which the known UDP 100mbps the protocol with static routing to guarantee determinancy of the protocol is all and connects two equivalent blocks of avionics under the name CCR (Common Computing Resource) which is plane brains. CCR, in turn, obtains all information on different systems from concentrators (Remote Data Concentrator — in fact A/D converters) scattered on all plane. CCR is a set of the same processor payments with the VxWorks or GreenHills OS and a set of aviation software which is responsible for management of all systems (LSAP – Loadable Software Airplane Part). The similar architecture has been applied for Tripl-Seven (Boeing 777) with his AIMS system (Airplane Information Management System) but not in such extensive scale.
As well as all modern B787 planes it is driven by the Fly-by-Wire system which architecture has been almost completely transferred from the Boeing 777 and answers the same philosophy of Flight Envelope Protection. If to explain on fingers, that is the computer will resist the pilot at emergence of non-staff maneuvers (for example an exit to 35-degree angle of heel) but посопротивлявшись, Fly–by–Wire will agree with the pilot and will allow it to turn as he wants. For example, on all Airbus’ax other philosophy of Flight Envelope Limiting where the computer under any circumstances doesn’t allow the pilot to make dangerous maneuver is used.
As the most bright example in a difference of ideologies of the Boeing and the Airbus serves the switch over a chair of the captain of PFC OFF who on Boeings completely disconnects Envelope Protection and allows to steer plane directly, from here and presence of a steering wheel at the Boeing and replacement of it with the joystick by Airbus speaks.
So-called Glass Cockpit helps to cope with all this electrogood to the pilot, that is in a cabin there are no analog devices at all, and everything is brought to five screens. The pilot, in turn, has a keyboard and touchpad for input of all information. At all fanciness, the pilot flying on the Boeing before will feel in the plate as the reeducation of pilots from B777 on B787 has to become covered 5 by a day course of retraining, from here and the requirement to unification of functionality and an arrangement of devices follows. The most striking differences consist in lack of the block of safety locks (they now electronic) and existence of HUD displays for both pilots that considerably facilitates flight on devices.
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